Common foods in northern New Mexico include aspen, chokecherry, oaks, bearberry, bitterbrush, mountain mahogany, and most other shrubs in the rose family (Rosaceae). Original author: James E. Knight, Extension Wildlife Specialist. Survival and cause-specific mortality of mule deer fawns in northcentral New Mexico. These changes have driven deer populations down because they have greatly reduced both the amount and quality of mule deer habitat. They lose their spots two to three months after they are born. The Bureau of Land Management – New Mexico (BLM) and the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (NMDGF) partnered to offer free maps of Big Game hunting units and recreational opportunities on public land using the CarryMap application.. Like other ruminants, the mule deer has a four-chambered stomach. Antler size and number of points depend mostly on the deer's age, physical condition, and their genetic background (Bender, 2011). Human-Wildlife Interactions, 6, 245—260. The antlers are shed following the breeding season each winter, and new antlers begin growing shortly after the old ones are dropped. The tail itself is white with a small black tip. Shop New Mexico Hunt Maps.

Game Management Unit 24 Maps for GMU 24 BLM Maps: Deming Quad, Hatch Quad, Mogollon Mountains Quad, Silver City Quad, and Truth or Consequences Quad. This, combined with a faster metabolism than elk or cattle, is what drives their need for high-quality, easily digestible foods. Access district and public hunting land maps. Basics of trophy management [Guide L-111].

Much of the concern about CWD involves its similarity to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease; consuming products from BSE-infected cattle has been linked to fatal new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. For more information on all aspects of mule and white-tailed deer ecology and management, see Deer of the Southwest (Heffelfinger, 2006).

Mule deer feeding is mainly crepuscular, meaning that they feed mostly early in the morning and again just before dark. Most of the remainder of the diet is forbs, and grasses and succulents (e.g., cacti) usually contribute much less than 10% seasonally. Predators kill deer in New Mexico each year. When reswallowed, it passes through the other chambers of the stomach and on through the digestive system. The smaller or less-aggressive bucks recognize their superiors and usually give in to their dominance. A viewpoint: Rangeland health and mule deer habitat. When the female is no longer receptive, the buck will leave her to seek other does. The Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance website ( is an excellent source for up-to-date information regarding CWD and its management. Mule deer have extremely large ears, hence the name. (Print friendly PDF). Lou Bender 2006. Deer of the Southwest. Although predators kill deer, predation may have little effect on the population if predation substitutes for (e.g., is compensatory to) other forms of mortality because deer are in poor condition or otherwise predisposed. Mule deer responded to these new habitats, especially the huge increase in shrublands, with population increases that peaked generally sometime during the 1940s to 1970s. Game Management Unit 2A A characteristic feature of the mule deer is the large white rump patch that surrounds the base of the tail. Fawns that are larger at birth, or born earlier, tend to be larger at weaning and therefore are more likely to survive. Cooperative Extension programs, the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Mule Deer Working Group (, and State Wildlife Agencies all have publications and other information available on increasing the quality of deer habitat. In areas where deer are abundant, antlerless and either-sex hunts are used. Mule deer have a gestation period of about seven months.

The same process is involved in the growth of the new antlers, which are covered by a skin called velvet that contains an extensive network of blood vessels. He earned his Ph.D. from Michigan State University. Clements, C.D., and J.A. © 2017 New Mexico State University - Board of Regents, College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES), Pocket Guide to the Native Bees of New Mexico, Pocket Guide to the Beneficial Insects of New Mexico. build a custom map for New Mexico GMU 21B South. During breeding periods, mature bucks cover a large area in search of receptive females (does). In W.D. Owners who want to improve mule deer habitat on private lands should keep in mind a wide range of considerations. Rocky Mountain mule deer are found from above the timberline to low-elevation short grasslands, and frequently in urban areas. Messmer. Bender, L.C., B.D. Whether you’re hunting grouse, squirrels, quail or waterfowl, or holding out for that elusive trophy bull elk, mule deer or pronghorn, New Mexico’s hunting opportunities are as abundant and diverse as its terrain and habitat.. New Mexico also offers hunting opportunities not found anywhere else, including hunts for exotic species including Persian ibex, oryx and Barbary sheep. Heffelfinger, J. Heffelfinger, J.R., and T.A. The summer coat is fine and silky in texture and the winter coat is coarser and thicker. All other rights reserved. As one example, the amount of forestland in aspen, probably the best mule deer habitat in northern New Mexico, has declined 88% (Bartos, 2001). Antlers from a white-tailed deer. Because of this, most populations contain only 25–50 bucks for every 100 does. Mature desert mule deer average about 140 lb field-dressed, with the largest deer approaching 170 lb. Fawns are usually born in June and July, later in southern New Mexico and later if does are in poor condition. White-tailed deer are more vulnerable to HD (especially epizootic hemorrhagic disease) than mule deer, and thus high mortality from HD is more common in white-tailed deer and pronghorn than mule deer. New Mexico GMU 21B North, Hunting Unit Map, New Mexico GMU 21B South, Hunting Unit Map. 2011. There are two subspecies of mule deer in New Mexico, the Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. hemionus hemionus) and the desert mule deer (O. hemionus eremicus). New Mexico GMU 21B North, Hunting Unit Map: Map Size: 36" x 48" Price: $34.95: If you're looking for a more detailed map or aerial photo of a portion of this GMU you can also build a custom map for New Mexico GMU 21B North. For example, densities of mule deer ranged from an estimated <1.2 deer/mi2 on private land in Colfax County to <1.9 deer/mi2 on New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC), while a recent minimum count found 3.7 deer/mi2 in higher-density areas of the San Andres Mountains (Bender et al., 2011, 2012; L. Bender, unpublished data).

Mule deer may also stot, or bounce stiff-leggedly on all four legs, when fleeing. Unlike the white-tailed deer, the mule deer does not raise its tail in alarm, but holds it against the body as it flees. In southern New Mexico, common foods include mountain mahogany, oaks, skunkbush, yucca, ceanothus, mesquite pods, globemallow, vervain, and silktassel. Normally, a doe has one fawn the first time she gives birth. 2012.

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