However, some of the military campaigns he was later involved in were less successful. Henry was 21 when he and his father and brothers captured the Moorish port of Ceuta in northern Morocco. He learned of the opportunities offered by the Saharan trade routes that terminated there, and became fascinated with Africa in general; he was most intrigued by the Christian legend of Prester John and the expansion of Portuguese trade. By the time of Henry’s death in 1460, Portuguese navigators had sailed as far south as the mouth of the Gambia River. In 1460 Prince Henry the Navigator died, but work continued at Sagres under the direction of Henry's nephew, King John II of Portugal. Dinis Dias soon came across the Senegal River and rounded the peninsula of Cap-Vert in 1444.

Henry IV helped to end the…, Henry I All Rights Reserved. It is likewise possible to exploit much more fully the existing primary sources, both published and unpublished. However, the date of retrieval is often important. 3099067

Nuno Tristão and Antão Gonçalves reached Cape Blanco in 1441. Ceuta had long been a base for Barbary pirates who raided the Portuguese coast, depopulating villages by capturing their inhabitants to be sold in the African slave trade. "Man of His Time (and Peers): A New Look at Henry the Navigator. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Infante Dom Henrique (Anrique) is not, however, only a national figure, but as "the Navigator" he belongs to the world. Publications Article Search Browse Publications Journal Proceedings Newsletter Other Publications Download Subscriptions Webinars Buy Publications, Advancing positioning, navigation and timing (PNT), © 1995-2020, The Institute of Navigation, Inc. Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Henry the navigator - Entries. The first explorations followed not long after the capture of Ceuta in 1415. Henry was the third surviving son of King John I and his wife Philippa,[2] sister of King Henry IV of England. "Henry, Prince the Navigator (1394-1460) Henry I (876-936), or Henry the Fowler, was king of Germany from 919 to 936. The move to claim the Madeiran islands was probably a response to Castile's efforts to claim the Canary Islands. They found shelter at an island they named Porto Santo. 7, No. Infante Dom Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu, better known as Prince Henry the Navigator, was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion. Try refining your search, or use the navigation above to locate the post. Full Paper: ION …

But his determination to expand Portuguese trade and territory elsewhere, under the guise of spreading Christianity amongst the heathen, was more successful. Alvise Cadamosto explored the Atlantic coast of Africa and discovered several islands of the Cape Verde archipelago between 1455 and 1456.

Later on it was made popular by two British authors who included it in the titles of their biographies of the prince: Henry Major in 1868 and Raymond Beazley in 1895. "The alleged nautical school founded in the fifteenth century at Sagres by Prince Henry of Portugal called the 'Navigator'". "Prince Henry the Navigator and the Apollo Project that Launched Columbus", "Brasil: historiador nega existência da Escola de Sagres", Infanta Isabel, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain, Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias, Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Portugal and Asturias,, Portuguese exploration in the Age of Discovery, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Elbl, Ivana. [7] Henry held this position for the remainder of his life, and the Order was an important source of funds for Henry's ambitious plans, especially his persistent attempts to conquer the Canary Islands, which the Portuguese had claimed to have discovered before the year 1346.

117-126. PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE ( It also brought him the fame, though not the fortune, he was almost certainly seeking. A cruzado was equal to 400 reis at the time. In 1420, Prince Henry the Navigator used his Order’s funds to establish a school here for navigators. When Henry’s nephew Afonso inherited the throne as a young boy in 1538, Henry lost a power struggle with his own elder brother Prince Pedro over who would serve as regent to govern the kingdom until the boy-king reached adulthood. The first monarch of the Saxon dynasty, he allowed auton…, Henry, Lenny 1958– Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Otonabee College, Trent University , 2151 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9L 1Z8, Canada, /doi/full/10.1016/S0304-4181%2801%2900002-1?needAccess=true. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. When John I died in 1433, Henry's eldest brother Edward of Portugal became king.
He is best known for completing the first world circumnavigation in History. Randles, W.G.L. Born 1394 Mark, Hans. In 1434, Gil Eanes, the commander of one of Henry's expeditions, became the first European known to pass Cape Bojador. In so doing he laid the foundations for the later 1497–1499 voyage of Vasco da Gama to India and the growth of a global commercial empire that would eventually stretch from India and Malaysia in the east to Brazil in the west. "[7], The first contacts with the African slave market were made by expeditions to ransom Portuguese subjects enslaved by pirate attacks on Portuguese ships or villages. Henry the Navigator, a 15th century Portuguese prince, helped usher in both the Age of Discovery and the Atlantic slave trade. He did employ some cartographers to chart the coast of Mauritania after the voyages he sent there, but there was no center of navigation science or observatory in the modern sense of the word, nor was there an organized navigational center. No one used the nickname "Navigator" to refer to prince Henry during his lifetime or in the following three centuries. "[12], The view that Henry's court rapidly grew into the technological base for exploration, with a naval arsenal and an observatory, etc., although repeated in popular culture, has never been established. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea ». We use cookies to improve your website experience. Dom Henrique, Infante of Portugal (1394–1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator, is one of the most notorious figures of western history. Besides Christopher Columbus, Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal has been the subject of more mythmaking than any other historical figure of Europe’s age of exploration and expansion. He granted Henry all profits from trading within the areas he discovered as well as the sole right to authorize expeditions beyond Cape Bojador. Henry distinguished himself in the 1415 attack on the Muslim city of Ceuta on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. Rather than a heroic figure who single-handedly fathered the Portuguese empire, Henry was just one key political advocate of a broad and gradual process of Portuguese expansion that involved the efforts of hundreds of sailors, scholars, and statesmen. ." You can find out more about which cookies we are using or switch them off in settings. © 2019 | All rights reserved. During these early stages of Portuguese exploration, there is no evidence that Henry envisioned sailing directly to India by rounding Africa’s southern tip, as Vasco da Gama would later succeed in doing in his 1497–1499 voyage long after Henry’s death. American Eras. A key mental obstacle to these early voyages was the long-held belief among Portuguese mariners that if a ship sailed past Cape Bojador on the African coast, strong currents and unfavorable winds would make it impossible to return to Portugal. A s a supporter of some of the first European voyages of exploration, Prince Henry th…, Henry, Joseph I am the third surviving son of King John I and Philippa of Lancaster, making me the prince of Portugal.

Royal Family. During Prince Henry's time and after, the Portuguese navigators discovered and perfected the North Atlantic Volta do Mar (the "turn of the sea" or "return from the sea"): the dependable pattern of trade winds blowing largely from the east near the equator and the returning westerlies in the mid-Atlantic. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. ." But Henry is best remembered for his patronage of a succession of seamen, Portuguese and others, who from 1434 onwards made voyages of discovery down the west coast of Africa (Guinea) in search of gold and slaves, and who in the 1450s found the first islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Entries. Prince Henry the Navigator - Biography and the Biography Henry the navigator, fifteenth-century portuguese prince and explorer, is a legendary, almost mythical figure in late medieval history. This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. ." By this time the Portuguese navigators had also reached the Sargasso Sea (western North Atlantic region), naming it after the Sargassum seaweed growing there (sargaço / sargasso in Portuguese).[18][19]. Henry's sobriquet, ‘the navigator’, is something of a misnomer. As a younger son Prince Henry was destined never to inherit the throne himself. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). In 1431, Gonçalo Velho was dispatched with orders to determine the location of "islands" first identified by de Silves. British comedian, actor, writer, and director See all related overviews in Oxford Reference In recent years, however, historians have discovered that much of the legend surrounding the historical figure of Prince Henry is hollow and misleading.

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